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Glossary of Tire Terms

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Diagram of Tire Parts & Wear Signs

 

     
 

  Glossary of Tire Related Terms

 

Alignment

The checking and adjustment of caster, camber and toe angles in a vehicle's suspension to maintain specifications engineered by the vehicle manufacturer for optimum performance.

Aspect ratio

The relationship between the section height and section width of a tire expressed as a percentage of section width. If the section height is one half the section width, the aspect ratio is 50%.

Balance

The equal distribution of the mass of the tire and wheel assembly for smooth driving. Balance is achieved by fitting weights to the wheel rim to offset uneven weight distribution of the tire or wheel.

Bead

An inextensible hoop of high tensile steel wires which anchors the plies and conforms to the rim seat to hold the tire onto the wheel rim.

Bead seat

The inner ledge portion of the wheel rim where the tire bead rests adjacent to the flange.

Belts

The plies of tire cords beneath the tread that determines the tire's diameter and stabilizes the tread by resisting deformation from cornering, braking, and centrifugal forces.

Bias-ply

A type of tire construction utilizing plies that run diagonally from one bead to the other. One ply is set on a bias in one direction, and succeeding plies are set alternately in opposing directions crossing each other. Sometimes called a cross-ply tire.

Camber

The angle between the centerline of the tire and a vertical line as viewed from the front.

Camber thrust

A cornering force generated by the tire's camber.

Casing

The tire body, composed of plies which form the tire's structure and give it shape. Sometimes called the carcass.

Caster

The angle between the vehicle's steering axis and a vertical line, as viewed from the side.

Compounding

The combining of five basic ingredients: rubber, carbon black, plasticizers, curing materials, and ozone retardants to form the tread and other "rubber" components of a tire.

Contact patch

See Footprint

Cornering force

The lateral frictional force generated by a cornering tire, acting in opposition to the centrifugal force.

Crown

The center area of a tire's tread.

Deflection

The deference between a tire's unloaded or free radius and the loaded radius.

Directional stability

The tendency for a tire to roll in it's steered direction rather than follow road contours.

Footprint

The area of the tire's tread that is in actual contact with the ground. (See Contact Patch)

Harmonic marking

Markings on wheels and tires that allow match mounting to cancel tire and wheel runout, minimizing vibration.

Hoop strength

The retention strength inherent in the belt construction of a tire that resists centrifugal force and provides dimensional stability.

Hydroplaning

The accumulation of water in a film under the footprint which causes a tire to lift from the road surface, losing traction. Hydroplaning is affected by vehicle speed, tread pattern, and water depth.

Imbalance

The condition that exists when a tire's mass is not evenly distributed around the rolling axis and centerline, causing bounce (static imbalance) or shake (dynamic imbalance).

Inflation pressure

The pressure of air inside a tire which applies a tensile stress to the tire cords permitting them to carry the vehicle's load.

Liner or inner-liner

The thin layer of halobutyl rubber inside a tire that contains the inflation air, sometimes called the inner-liner. All Dunlop passenger tires are manufactured with an inner-liner.

Mixing tires

Fitting tires of different sizes or constructions to a vehicle. Mixing should be avoided. Some performance vehicles, however, specify different size tires on front and rear axles.

Mounting tires

The act of fitting tires to wheel rims.

Overall diameter

The diameter of an unloaded, inflated tire measured from the crown on one side to the crown on the opposite side. The free radius equals one-half the overall diameter. Sometimes called the outside diameter.

Overinflation

The condition that exists when a tire is inflated beyond the pressure corresponding to the actual load or beyond the vehicle manufacturer's recommendation .

Oversteer

The situation that occurs in cornering when the rear of a vehicle tends to skid before the front.

Plies

The reinforcing members of a tire composed of layers of cord fabric and rubber that provide the strength to contain the air pressure needed to support a load and resist deflection.

Radial

The tire construction utilizing plies that run radially from bead to bead under the tread. This construction requires a belt to stabilize the tread and define the tire diameter.

Revolutions per mile

The measured number of revolutions made by a tire traveling one mile.

Rim

The portion of a wheel incorporating the well, seats, and flange onto which a tire is mounted.

Rim diameter

The diameter of the rim bead seats that support a tire, normally indicated in whole numbers in inches for passenger cars.

Rollover

The condition that occurs during hard cornering when a tire sidewall rubs the road surface.

Rotation

The systematic movement of tires from one vehicle position to another to maximize tread life and minimize irregular wear.

Runout

The measure of the out of roundness of the tire causing a vibration which cannot be balanced.

Rim width

The distance between rim flanges.

Section

A slice of a tire from one bead, through the tread to the other bead.

Section height

The vertical distance from the bead edge to center of the crown in an unloaded tire.

Section width

The distance between a tire's sidewalls measured at the widest part of the tire. Each size of tire is measured on a specific rim width.

Series

A designation of a tire's aspect ratio. A tire with an aspect ratio of 60% is a 60 series tire.

Shoulder

The edge of a tire's tread where it joins the sidewall.

Sidewall

The portion of the tire between the bead and the tread. It is flexible to soak up bumps yet stiff to limit tire rollover.

Slip angle

The angle between the direction in which a tire is aimed or steered and the actual direction of tire travel.

Speed rating

A letter designation identifying the tire's high speed durability on an indoor test wheel. Refer to ECE 30 European Indoor Wheel Test Standards.

Toe

The difference between the front and rear edges of tires mounted on an axle. Toe-in means the front edges are closer together than the rear edges and tires point inward. Toe-out means the front edges are farther apart than the rear edges and the tires point outward.

Tread

The region of a tire designed to contact the ground. It is molded of tough rubber for high traction and low wear.

Tread pattern

The arrangement of blocks, grooves, sipes, and channels designed into the tread to enhance its grip. Also called the tread design.

Tread void

Areas in the tread, such as grooves and channels, that permit water to drain away from the footprint.

Treadwear

The measure of the life of a tire tread.

Tubeless

A tire construction which uses a rubber innerliner inside the casing to prevent air leakage and eliminate the need for an inner-tube.

Underinflation

The condition that exists when there is not sufficient air pressure in a tire to support a specific load. This causes the tire to operate with excessive deflection and rollover.

Understeer

The condition that exists during cornering when the front of a vehicle tends to skid before the rear.

Wheel alignment

See Alignment.

 

 

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